Frap Talks are open discussions about modular synthesis. We’ll talk about core concepts such as voltage processing, but also more specific things like our approach towards user interfaces.

The legend of BRENSO’s pulse-width modulation

PWM is a huge part of everyday electronics, but it is also a classic synth sound, to the point it reached a cult (if not meme) status.

A Eurorack oscillator like BRENSO wouldn’t have been completed without a PWM section, and today we’re exploring it in detail. It might not be the most obvious feature, since it is nestled into the timbre modulation section, but it is capable of wild timbres.

Understanding CUNSA’s gain staging: VCA, character, Q, mixer

In another video we shed some light on the basis of gain staging. Today, we’ll put them into practice with our CUNSA filter!

What are modes and why they’re all over the USTA sequencer

We started from the overtone series and we arrived at Western tonal harmony. However, we left something behind: the modes. In today’s video, we’ll see what they are, and why they seem such a vague concept.

The wonderful world of gain staging, or: how to balance your Eurorack signals

Today we’ll introduce the topic of gain staging because yes. We’ll explore the concepts of gain versus volume, headroom, and saturation. We’ll also do some examples, like how to interface a modular synth with guitar pedals and how to interface a guitar with a modular synthesizer. At the end, a bonus tip on saturation.

What is tonal harmony and why it is relevant to the USTA sequencer

Tonal harmony might sound super old and boring but it’s never going to die, whether we like it or not! In this video, we will see what it is and why it might be worth a chance with the USTA sequencer.

How does BRENSO generate its wave forms and how to win an extra analog sawtooth!

Today we’ll explore BRENSO’s core, its generation circuits, and by the end we’ll add an extra waveform to the stock ones!

Notes, intervals, tuning, temperament: the basics of music and their impact on the USTA sequencer

In the previous video, we got a glimpse of how notes and overtones are related. Today, we’ll see how we came to 12 notes in the West.

What are overtones and why they might be more important than you imagine

Today’s topic ties together notes, harmony, tuning, timbre, and even more. It’s the overtones, and this is our introduction!

Why notes exist

Let’s talk about notes and why sometimes it’s not clear how we’re supposed to tune our instruments. What is A4? What is middle C? Why is there a C-1?

Frequency Modulation Part 2: (Through-Zero) Linear FM

Today we dive into one of the greatest topics of modular synthesis: Linear FM. What is Through-Zero? What is the difference between linear and exponential FM? How can we use it for sound design? All these questions and many more will find an answer in today’s video!

Modular Expressiveness ep. 4: Ornaments with the USTA sequencer

This time we’ll discuss about the most flamboyant way of adding expressiveness to our piece: grace notes, acciaccaturas, mordents, trills, and any kind of musical embellishment!

Modular Expressiveness ep. 3: Agogic (or, Messing Around with the Clock)

This time we deal with a tricky topic which is often taken for granted: the clock. We will explore a couple of agogic trick that add expressiveness through clock and phase manipulation. Do you play with the clock, or you keep it safe from modulations? Let us know!

Modular Expressiveness ep. 2: Dynamics

If we think about “depth” in music, we think about amplitude variation, or: dynamics. So today, we’ll continue our journey through modular expressiveness by exploring the many ways we can liven up our melody through amplitude.

Modular Expressiveness ep. 1: Articulation

Electronic music can be stiff and robotic, but it can also be expressive. Today we start a series of videos about modular expressiveness and we will see a bunch of tricks to add new life to our melodic lines.

Debunking Polyphony

Today we’ll debunk the myth of polyphony! We want to show that you don’t need many oscillators to create a solid harmonic motion. In fact, you can easily achieve a sense of polyphony with just one oscillator, thanks to some hacks that date back to the Baroque era.

Filter Banks

This Talk explores the concept of filter banks

Frequency Modulation Part 1: Exponential FM

Today we'll begin our journey into BRENSO’s FM circuit, and we will start... From FALISTRI. Relax, take a breath, and prepare to dive into the world of exponential frequency modulation. Most analog oscillators provide a stock of really cool waveforms like triangle, sawtooth, or pulse waves. However, some techniques can help us achieve many more…

Flip Sync

Time to do some sync sweeps with the BRENSO oscillator!

Randomizing the USTA Sequencer (Modular Randomness ep. 3)

Pseudorandom VS true random: all the randomness on the USTA sequencer.

Quantized Random Voltages (Modular Randomness ep.2)

Quantization in detail!

Amplitude and Ring Modulation: the Four-Quadrant Multipliers

Today we take a step further into VCAs and discuss a kind of voltage-controlled attenuverters: the four-quadrant multipliers


Today we won’t do any patching! This episode discusses the user interfaces, how they can shape our approach towards making music, and also, what is our view at Frap Tools.

Modular Randomness 1

Sample and hold, fluctuating random voltages, probability distribution: today we'll talk about SAPÈL and the magnetic charm of unpredictability!

Exponential VCAs

Today we’ll talk about exponential VCAs in their most popular form: the mixers. To do so, we’ll use the CGM, a voltage-controllable Eurorack mixer!

Amplifiers, Inverters, Offset

Today we’ll see why amplification, inversion, and offset are so important, and we’ll talk about how to achieve them in our system!

Timing Pulses, Episode 3

In today’s episode, well talk about Gates from the USTA sequencer perspective! We’ll see how to generate them, how to handle Stage Length and Gate length, how to play with ratchets, and, most importantly, how to get some cool ideas with BRENSO

Timing Pulses, Episode 2

In this episode of Frap Talks we’ll talk about FALISTRI, gates, quadrature modes and groove.

Timing Pulses, Episode 1

In this episode of Frap Talks we’ll talk about trigs, and we’ll see how to use them in our Frap System. Transcript Hello, and welcome to Frap Talks, where we discuss anything related to modular synthesis with frap tools instruments. Today we’ll start with a question. What do music, bakery, and connecting flights have in…